Bibliography and References


Please use modified Vancouver style.

The manner of writing names of authors depends on the number of the authors: up to 4 authors – provide names and surnames of all authors; 5 and more authors – provide names and surnames of three first authors and end with „et al.”;

When providing a range of pages, use a hyphen „-” not a dash „ – “, which is longer. Use the Index Medicus abbreviations of journals. The name of the journal is followed by the year of publication, volume and the full range of pages, for example: 123-124 (not: 123-4).

An exemplary record of literature:

Journal article:

Lahita R, Kluger J, Drayer DE et al.: Antibodies to nuclear antigens in patients treated with procainamide or acetylprocainamide. N Engl J Med 1979; 301: 1382-1385.


Turk DC, Okifuji A: Pain term and taxonomies of pain. In: Loeser JD (ed.): Bonica’s Management if Pain. 3rd ed., Lippincott Williams & Wikins. Philadelphia 2001: 17-25.


References to the literature in the text should be given in brackets, e. g. This sentence contains a scientific information (2).

Please note that the bracket comes before the period (“.”), and not after. Therefore, a correct version is:

This is an exemplary sentence (1). 

and not:

This is an exemplary sentence. (1)

Please be sure to use references in every place they are needed, even if you need to repeat the same reference a few times in a row. E.g. Here is a fact from a research (2). Here is another fact from the same research, but it is in another sentence, so a new reference is needed (2).